Lightweight Fusion by Fixed Point Promotion, Atsushi Ohori and Isao Sasano.

This paper proposes a lightweight fusion method for general recursive function definitions. Compared with existing proposals, our method has several significant practical features: it works for general recursive functions on general algebraic data types; it does not produce extra runtime overhead (except for possible code size increase due to the success of fusion); and it is readily incorporated in standard inlining optimization. This is achieved by extending the ordinary inlining process with a new fusion law that transforms a term of the form f o (fix g.Î»x.E) to a new fixed point term fix h.Î»x.E' by promoting the function f through the fixed point operator.

This is a sound syntactic transformation rule that is not sensitive to the types of f and g. This property makes our method applicable to wide range of functions including those with multi-parameters in both curried and uncurried forms. Although this method does not guarantee any form of completeness, it fuses typical examples discussed in the literature and others that involve accumulating parameters, either in the foldl-like specific forms or in general recursive forms, without any additional machinery.

In order to substantiate our claim, we have implemented our method in a compiler. Although it is preliminary, it demonstrates practical feasibility of this method.

Deforestation is one of those optimizations every functional programmer who has ever had to rewrite a beautiful composition of maps and filters into an evil, ugly explicit fold has always longed for. Unfortunately, the standard lightweight fusion algorithms have trouble with examples as simple as `foldl`

, and this paper has a very nice account of a simple algorithm that can handle it.

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