The Next Stage of Staging, by Jun Inoue, Oleg Kiselyov, Yukiyoshi Kameyama:
This position paper argues for typelevel metaprogramming, wherein types and type declarations are generated in addition to program terms. Termlevel
metaprogramming, which allows manipulating expressions only, has been extensively studied in the form of staging, which ensures static type safety with a clean semantics with hygiene (lexical scoping). However, the corresponding development is absent for type manipulation. We propose extensions to staging to cover MLstyle module generation and show the possibilities they open up for type specialization and overheadfree parametrization of data types equipped with operations. We outline the challenges our proposed extensions pose for semantics and type safety, hence offering a starting point for a longterm program in the next stage of staging research. The key observation is that type declarations do not obey scoping rules as variables do, and that in metaprogramming, types are naturally prone to escaping the lexical environment in which they were declared. This sets nextstage staging apart from dependent types, whose benefits and implementation mechanisms overlap with our proposal, but which does not deal with typedeclaration generation. Furthermore, it leads to an interesting connection between staging and the logic of definitions, adding to the study’s theoretical significance.
A position paper describing the next logical progression of staging to metaprogramming over types. Now with the true firstclass modules of 1ML, perhaps there's a clearer way forward.
The project Incremental λCalculus is just starting (compared to more mature approaches like selfadjusting computation), with a first publication last year.
A theory of changes for higherorder languages — incrementalizing λcalculi by static differentiation
Paolo Giarusso, Yufei Cai, Tillmann Rendel, and Klaus Ostermann. 2014
If the result of an expensive computation is invalidated by a small change to the input, the old result should be updated incrementally instead of reexecuting the whole computation. We incrementalize programs through their derivative. A derivative maps changes in the program’s input directly to changes in the program’s output, without reexecuting the original program. We present a program transformation taking programs to their derivatives, which is fully static and automatic, supports firstclass functions, and produces derivatives amenable to standard optimization.
We prove the program transformation correct in Agda for a family of simplytyped λcalculi, parameterized by base types and primitives. A precise interface specifies what is required to incrementalize the chosen primitives.
We investigate performance by a case study: We implement in Scala the program transformation, a plugin and improve performance of a nontrivial program by orders of magnitude.
I like the nice dependent types: a key idea of this work is that the "diffs" possible from a value v do not live in some common type diff(T) , but rather in a valuedependent type diff(v) . Intuitively, the empty list and a nonempty list have fairly different types of possible changes. This makes changemerging and changeproducing operations total, and allow to give them a nice operational theory. Good design, through types.
(The program transformation seems related to the programlevel parametricity transformation. Parametricity abstract over equality justifications, differentiation on small differences.)
Presented annually to the author of the outstanding doctoral dissertation in the area of Programming Languages. The award includes a prize of $1,000. The winner can choose to receive the award at ICFP, OOPSLA, POPL, or PLDI.
I guess it is fairly obvious why professors should propose their students (the deadline is January 4th 2015). Newly minted PhD should, for similar reasons, make sure their professors are reminded of these reasons. I can tell you that the competition is going to be tough this year; but hey, you didn't go into programming language theory thinking it is going to be easy, did you?
Zélus : A Synchronous Language with ODEs
Timothy Bourke, Marc Pouzet
2013
Zélus is a new programming
language for modeling systems that mix discrete logical time and
continuous time behaviors. From a user's perspective, its main
originality is to extend an existing Lustrelike
synchronous language with Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs). The
extension is conservative: any synchronous program expressed as
dataflow equations and hierarchical automata can be composed
arbitrarily with ODEs in the same source code.
A dedicated type system and causality analysis ensure that all
discrete changes are aligned with zerocrossing events so that no side
effects or discontinuities occur during integration. Programs are
statically scheduled and translated into sequential code that, by
construction, runs in bounded time and space. Compilation is effected
by sourcetosource translation into a small synchronous subset which
is processed by a standard synchronous compiler architecture. The
resultant code is paired with an offtheshelf numeric solver.
We show that it is possible to build a modeler for explicit hybrid
systems à la Simulink/Stateflow on top of
an existing synchronous language, using it both as a semantic basis
and as a target for code generation.
Synchronous programming languages (à la Lucid
Synchrone) are language designs for reactive systems with discrete
time. Zélus extends them gracefully to hybrid discrete/continuous
systems, to interact with the physical world, or simulate it  while
preserving their strong semantic qualities.
The paper is short (6 pages) and centered around examples rather than
the theory  I enjoyed it. Not being familiar with the domain, I was
unsure what the "zerocrossings" mentioned in the introductions are,
but there is a good explanation further down in the paper:
The standard way to detect events in a numeric solver is
via zerocrossings where a solver monitors expressions for changes in
sign and then, if they are detected, searches for a more precise
instant of crossing.
The Zélus website has a 'publications' page with
more advanced material, and an 'examples' page with
case studies.
The goal of Flow is to find errors in JavaScript code with little programmer effort. Flow relies heavily on type inference to find type errors even when the program has not been annotated  it precisely tracks the types of variables as they flow through the program.
At the same time, Flow is a gradual type system. Any parts of your program that are dynamic in nature can easily bypass the type checker, so you can mix statically typed code with dynamic code.
Flow also supports a highly expressive type language. Flow types can express much more finegrained distinctions than traditional type systems. For example, Flow helps you catch errors involving null, unlike most type systems.
Read more here.
Here's the announcement from Facebook.
Post by Joe Armstrong of Erlang fame. Leader:
Why do we need modules at all? This is a braindumpstreamofconsciousnessthing. I've been thinking about this for a while. I'm proposing a slightly different way of programming here. The basic idea is:
 do away with modules
 all functions have unique distinct names
 all functions have (lots of) meta data
 all functions go into a global (searchable) Keyvalue database
 we need letrec
 contribution to open source can be as simple as contributing a single function
 there are no "open source projects"  only "the open source KeyValue database of all functions"
 Content is peer reviewed
Why does Erlang have modules? There's a good an bad side to modules. Good: Provides a unit of compilation, a unit of code distribution. unit of code replacement. Bad: It's very difficult to decide which module to put an individual function in. Break encapsulation (see later).
In this year's POPL, Bob Atkey made a splash by showing how to get from parametricity to conservation laws, via Noether's theorem:
Invariance is of paramount importance in programming languages and in physics. In programming languages, John Reynolds’ theory of relational parametricity demonstrates that parametric polymorphic programs are invariant under change of data representation, a property that yields “free” theorems about programs just from their types. In physics, Emmy Noether showed that if the action of a physical system is invariant under change of coordinates, then the physical system has a conserved quantity: a quantity that remains constant for all time. Knowledge of conserved quantities can reveal deep properties of physical systems. For example, the conservation of energy, which by Noether’s theorem is a consequence of a system’s invariance under timeshifting.
In this paper, we link Reynolds’ relational parametricity with Noether’s theorem for deriving conserved quantities. We propose an extension of System Fω with new kinds, types and term constants for writing programs that describe classical mechanical systems in terms of their Lagrangians. We show, by constructing a relationally parametric model of our extension of Fω, that relational parametricity is enough to satisfy the hypotheses of Noether’s theorem, and so to derive conserved quantities for free, directly from the polymorphic types of Lagrangians expressed in our system.
In case this one went under the radar, at POPL'12, Martín Escardó gave a tutorial on seemingly impossible functional programs:
Programming language semantics is typically applied to
prove compiler correctness and allow (manual or automatic) program
verification. Certain kinds of semantics can also be applied to
discover programs that one wouldn't have otherwise thought of. This is
the case, in particular, for semantics that incorporate topological
ingredients (limits, continuity, openness, compactness). For example,
it turns out that some function types (X > Y) with X infinite (but
compact) do have decidable equality, contradicting perhaps popular
belief, but certainly not (highertype) computability theory. More
generally, one can often check infinitely many cases in finite time.
I will show you such programs, run them fast in surprising instances,
and introduce the theory behind their derivation and working. In
particular, I will study a single (very high type) program that (i)
optimally plays sequential games of unbounded length, (ii) implements
the Tychonoff Theorem from topology (and builds finitetime search
functions for infinite sets), (iii) realizes the doublenegation shift
from proof theory (and allows us to extract programs from classical
proofs that use the axiom of countable choice). There will be several
examples in the languages Haskell and Agda.
A shorter version (coded in Haskell) appears in Andrej Bauer's blog.
Gordon Plotkin is renowned for his groundbreaking contributions to programming language semantics, which have helped to shape the landscape of theoretical computer science, and which have impacted upon the design of programming languages and their verification technologies. The influence of his pioneering work on logical frameworks pervades modern proof technologies. In addition, he has made outstanding contributions in machine learning, automated theorem proving, and computerassisted reasoning. He is still active in research at the topmost level, with his current activities placing him at the forefront of fields as diverse as programming semantics, applied logic, and systems biology.
Well deserved, of course. Congrats!
Announcing the 2015 edition of the OBT workshop, to be colocated with POPL 2015, in Mumbai, India. Twopage paper submissions are due November 7, 2014.
From the web page (http://www.cs.rice.edu/~sc40/obt15/):
Programming language researchers have the principles, tools, algorithms and abstractions to solve all kinds of problems, in all areas of computer science. However, identifying and evaluating new problems, particularly those that lie outside the typical core PL problems we all know and love, can be a significant challenge. This workshop's goal is to identify and discuss problems that do not often show up in our top conferences, but where programming language research can make a substantial impact. We hope fora like this will increase the diversity of problems that are studied by PL researchers and thus increase our community's impact on the world.
While many workshops associated with POPL have become more like miniconferences themselves, this is an antigoal for OBT. The workshop will be informal and structured to encourage discussion. We are at least as interested in problems as in solutions.

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