Merging Languages

Hello everyone.

During my PhD I encountered a nice problem.

The system I was working on (an object-oriented database) evolved over time to use 4 different languages. Each language was tailored to one specific activity (querying, operations, data, meta-data).
They also are based on different programming paradigms: functional and imperative.

Over time I realized that the system could benefit from a merge of all these langauges in a single one.

I managed to do it and the result is interesting, but I could not find any material on such a procedure.

Does anyone of you know of some references/papers/articles related to the merging of programming languages?

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Merging by embedding

There's Silvija Seres and Michael J. Spivey's Embedding Prolog into Haskell which joins logic programming and functional programming paradigms in a nice way.

Best (or worst) example would be Perl

A whole bunch of languages that join together - with new ones being added all the time.

ePolyglot: C, Eiffel, Python, and Haskell

The project ePolyglot is to merge system-programming on C with scripting on Python with OOP on Eiffel with FP on Haskell.

Although, personally I do not see a reason for Eiffel there as Python is a good OO language. As for Design by Contract, it can be done in both Python and Haskell.