Julia is a new programming language by Viral Shah, Jeff Bezanson, Stefan Karpinski, and Alan Edelman.
From the blog post Why We Created Julia:
We are greedy: we want more.
We want a language thatâ€™s open source, with a liberal license. We want the speed of C with the dynamism of Ruby. We want a language thatâ€™s homoiconic, with true macros like Lisp, but with obvious, familiar mathematical notation like Matlab. We want something as usable for general programming as Python, as easy for statistics as R, as natural for string processing as Perl, as powerful for linear algebra as Matlab, as good at gluing programs together as the shell. Something that is dirt simple to learn, yet keeps the most serious hackers happy. We want it interactive and we want it compiled.
(Did we mention it should be as fast as C?)
While weâ€™re being demanding, we want something that provides the distributed power of Hadoop â€” without the kilobytes of boilerplate Java and XML; without being forced to sift through gigabytes of log files on hundreds of machines to find our bugs. We want the power without the layers of impenetrable complexity. We want to write simple scalar loops that compile down to tight machine code using just the registers on a single CPU. We want to write A*B and launch a thousand computations on a thousand machines, calculating a vast matrix product together.
We never want to mention types when we donâ€™t feel like it. But when we need polymorphic functions, we want to use generic programming to write an algorithm just once and apply it to an infinite lattices of types; we want to use multiple dispatch to efficiently pick the best method for all of a functionâ€™s arguments, from dozens of method definitions, providing common functionality across drastically different types. Despite all this power, we want the language to be simple and clean.
Looking at the excellent Julia manual, it becomes clear that Julia is a descendant of Common Lisp. While Common Lisp has many detractors (and not entirely without reason), nobody can claim that the family of languages it spawned aren't well designed. On the contrary, languages like NewtonScript, Dylan, [Cecil and Diesel,] Goo, PLOT, and now Julia all have a hard to grasp quality without a name that makes them an improvement over many of their successors.