An operational and axiomatic semantics for non-determinism and sequence points in C

In a recent LtU discussion, naasking comments that "I always thought languages that don't specify evaluation order should classify possibly effectful expressions that assume an evaluation order to be errors". Recent work on the C language has provided reasonable formal tools to reason about evaluation order for C, which has very complex evaluation-order rules.

An operational and axiomatic semantics for non-determinism and sequence points in C
Robbert Krebbers

The C11 standard of the C programming language does not specify the execution order of expressions. Besides, to make more effective optimizations possible (e.g. delaying of side-effects and interleav- ing), it gives compilers in certain cases the freedom to use even more behaviors than just those of all execution orders.

Widely used C compilers actually exploit this freedom given by the C standard for optimizations, so it should be taken seriously in formal verification. This paper presents an operational and ax- iomatic semantics (based on separation logic) for non-determinism and sequence points in C. We prove soundness of our axiomatic se- mantics with respect to our operational semantics. This proof has been fully formalized using the Coq proof assistant.

One aspect of this work that I find particularly interesting is that it provides a program (separation) logic: there is a set of inference rules for a judgment of the form \(\Delta; J; R \vdash \{P\} s \{Q\}\), where \(s\) is a C statement and \(P, Q\) are logical pre,post-conditions such that if it holds, then the statement \(s\) has no undefined behavior related to expression evaluation order. This opens the door to practical verification that existing C program are safe in a very strong way (this is all validated in the Coq theorem prover).

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Your like to my comment

Your like to my comment seems broken. Sounds like very interesting work though, so I'll definitely read it.

Fixed the link.

Fixed the link.