A Core Calculus of Metaclasses

A Core Calculus of Metaclasses - written by Sam Tobin-Hochstadt and Eric Allen for Fool 12

Metaclasses provide a useful method of abstraction for programmers working with object-oriented languages, but they have not seen the formal exploration applied to more conventional object-oriented programming features. In order to elucidate the structure of metaclasses and their relationship with static typing, we present a core calculus for a nominally-typed object-oriented language with metaclasses and prove type soundness over this core.

Metaclasses are a nifty (albeit somewhat arcane) OOP feature. I found the article interesting, but I had a lot of trouble with the elaborate type soundness proofs. Those who are unfamiliar with metaclass programming might want to read some introductory material before tackling this article. Metaclass Programming in Python by Mertz and Simionato is a particularly good overview.

Parameterized Unit Tests

Parameterized Unit Tests. Nikolai Tillmann; Wolfram Schulte; Wolfgang Grieskamp

Parameterized unit tests extend the current industry practice of using closed unit tests defined as parameterless methods. Parameterized unit tests separate two concerns: 1) They specify the external behavior of the involved methods for all possible test arguments. 2) Test cases can be re-obtained as traditional closed unit tests by instantiating the parameterized unit tests. Symbolic execution and constraint solving can be used to automatically choose a minimal set of inputs that exercise a parameterized unit test with respect to possible code paths of the implementation. In addition, parameterized unit tests can be used as symbolic summaries which allows symbolic execution to scale for arbitrary abstraction levels. We have developed a prototype tool which computes test cases from parameterized unit tests; it is integrated into the forthcoming Visual Studio Team System product. We report on its first use to test parts of the .NET base class library.

By adding parameters the authors turn a closed unit test into a universally quantified conditional axiom that must hold for all inputs under specified assumptions. Adding parameters improves the expressiveness of unit cases, at the expense of not providing concrete test cases. Symbolic execution is used to automatically find the set of parameters that have to be tested.

This seems like an interesting approach to unifying unit testing and algebraic specifications.


Metaphor is a strongly-typed, multi-stage, object-oriented programming language. Metaphor is based on a subset of C# and is extended with multi-stage programming constructs in the style of MetaML or MetaOCaml. Metaphor is implemented as a compiler on the .NET CLR.

Metaphor features a static type system for object-oriented reflection operations (i.e. run-time type analysis). This allows the reflection system to be safely incorporated into the language’s staging constructs and thus allows the generation of code based on the structure of types.

Pugs, Practicing the Theories.

A lot of language theory goes past here on Lambda the Ultimate, but we rarely see that theory directly impacting commercial programmers.

I'm a great fan of theoretical concepts like arrows, but at the same time I'm a self-employed programmer interested in solving my clients' problems.

Pugs is notable in that it profitably uses recent developments such as GADTs and Template Haskell for an implementation of Perl6.

I recently became a regular on the #perl6 irc channel and soon after joined the list of committers.

In just a few days I've seen a lot. I've seen enthusiastic members of the Perl community learning Haskell. I've seen myself learning Perl. I've also seen how daily Perl programmers work with abstractions like monad transformers. I've seen how some structures are easy to extend for programmers new to both the Pugs codebase and Haskell.

The Pugs project was started 64 days ago by Autrijus Tang, as an exercise while reading TaPL. Pugs already includes network and threading primitives. New tests and code are add at an amazing rate, as evidenced by the smoke tests.

I don't know if I'll end up using Perl after Pugs is written, but I am learning how to practice the theory of programming language design and implementation.

The JCP EC rejects JDO 2.0

Discussed here.

We discussed Hibernate, and O/R mapping in general, a couple of times so I thought this might be of interest.

OOP Is Much Better in Theory Than in Practice

An critique of OOP. The article is about OOP as a SE/design approach and doesn't directly attack the issue from a PL angle, but it might still interest LtU readers.

From a PL point of view, I would have chnaged the title to: OOP Is Much Better in Theory Than in Practice, (And the Theory Isn't too Good anyway).

Polyglot and Nested Inheritance

Polyglot is a compiler front end framework for building Java language extensions that doesn't seem to have been mentioned here.

Amongst the extensions is an implementation of nested inheritance which, I admit, I don't completely get. There's a discussion (moderately critical) of the paper in the context of OCaml that starts here.

This caught my eye while scanning the latest Caml Weekly News - a useful summary of the (rather high volume) (O)Caml list.

Grady Booch: Microsoft and Domain Specific Languages

Grady Booch's contribution to the discussion on UML vs. DSLs.

Along the way we learn about UML specialization mechanisms, UML profiles, and Grady's opinions as regards tool vs. language issues.

Practical Common Lisp

Practical Common Lisp by Peter Seibel was mentioned here in the past, but not on the home page if I am not mistaken.

You can download all but three chapters from the website, and seeing as Lisp is an important and somewhat unique language, you might want to do just that.

The chapters I read were well written and funny at times. What's not to like?

The OO chapters offer a nice intro to CLOS, which might interest those with OO experience seeing as CLOS doesn't resemble your average OOPL.

I must say that it's nice to see "practical" how-to books written for non-mainstream languages.

OO Programming Styles in ML

OO Programming Styles in ML, Bernard Berthomieu.

It is shown that the essential OO concepts and idioms, including inheritance and dynamic dispatch, can be encoded in this well understood framework, without requiring any operational or typing extensions of ML...

[The encodings] do not rely on subtyping and subsumption, but on an encoding of inheritance polymorphism into paramteric polymorphism.

This isn't new (it is dated March 2000), but seems interesting.

The ML module language put to good use!

Thanks Henry!

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