Metaphor is a strongly-typed, multi-stage, object-oriented programming language. Metaphor is based on a subset of C# and is extended with multi-stage programming constructs in the style of MetaML or MetaOCaml. Metaphor is implemented as a compiler on the .NET CLR.

Metaphor features a static type system for object-oriented reflection operations (i.e. run-time type analysis). This allows the reflection system to be safely incorporated into the language’s staging constructs and thus allows the generation of code based on the structure of types.

Pugs, Practicing the Theories.

A lot of language theory goes past here on Lambda the Ultimate, but we rarely see that theory directly impacting commercial programmers.

I'm a great fan of theoretical concepts like arrows, but at the same time I'm a self-employed programmer interested in solving my clients' problems.

Pugs is notable in that it profitably uses recent developments such as GADTs and Template Haskell for an implementation of Perl6.

I recently became a regular on the #perl6 irc channel and soon after joined the list of committers.

In just a few days I've seen a lot. I've seen enthusiastic members of the Perl community learning Haskell. I've seen myself learning Perl. I've also seen how daily Perl programmers work with abstractions like monad transformers. I've seen how some structures are easy to extend for programmers new to both the Pugs codebase and Haskell.

The Pugs project was started 64 days ago by Autrijus Tang, as an exercise while reading TaPL. Pugs already includes network and threading primitives. New tests and code are add at an amazing rate, as evidenced by the smoke tests.

I don't know if I'll end up using Perl after Pugs is written, but I am learning how to practice the theory of programming language design and implementation.

A New Approach to Abstract Syntax with Variable Binding

Pitts and Gabbay, A New Approach to Abstract Syntax with Variable Binding, FAC 2001.

In the lambda calculus, the particular choice of variable names - even free variables - is irrelevant. Names serve two purposes:

  • as mnemonics to help human readers understand their role, and
  • to distinguish variables that are meant to be different and unify variables that are meant to be the same.

In a theory of binders, only the latter purpose is relevant. This is why it's so annoying to have to deal with capture-avoiding substitution, the Barendregt variable convention, gensym, and the like. These are all ways of getting around the fact that we've committed to a particular name when we really shouldn't have cared what the name was.

There are several standard ways to deal with this. Generating fresh names with gensym is awkward and forces the implementer to reimplement binding and substitution from scratch for each new object language; not to mention its violation of referential transparency. de Bruijn indices remove the variable names but are hard to read and understand. Higher-order abstract syntax implements binders in the object language as functions in the metalanguage, in order to reuse the built-in mechanisms of binding and substitution; but by mixing higher-order values in algebraic datatypes, structural induction is hard to recover.

This paper introduces a theory of fresh names that restores algebraic reasoning, referential transparency, and structural induction to algebraic datatypes with a HOAS-like notation for introducing binders into an abstract syntax. This is the set-theoretical basis for the authors' work on FreshML and FreshO'Caml, which we've discussed a little bit on LtU in the past.

Educational Pearl: Automata as Macros

Shriram Krishnamurthi's classic macro automaton example, well known from his LL1 presentation, is now written up as an educational pearl for JFP.

As you may recall, the example shows how to use Scheme macros to create an an automata DSL, and concentrates on the importance of proper tail-calls for achieving the desired semantics.

Adobe Releases Adam and Eve

It was with some shock that I read (via Slashdot) about Adobe's Open Source presentation engine (and layout system). In my experience, very few companies take much stock in writing generic systems that leverage the body of computer science.

So, I was quite pleased to read Sean Parent's comments:

The most ambitious library, Adam, stems from the intuition that the logic behind a simple human interface can be distilled to a function:

f(x) -> x'

The code providing this functionality accounts for a third of Adobe's code base and nearly half of the bugs found during development. Obviously these functions are not so simple, at least not as currently expressed. The apparent complexity is due to a high degree of interconnected variables. Event handling code alone does not have enough context for solving such systems.

The next jaw-dropping tidbit came a few lines later:

Still, I am convinced that writing correct, high performance, and feature rich systems can be orders of magnitude simpler than it currently is. By my estimate, 70% of Adobe's current code base could be better represented declaratively. The remaining imperative logic could be largely generic - reused both within and across Adobe's applications. Realizing even a fraction of this potential would open up a world of opportunities. I strongly suspect the proportions are similar throughout the industry.

The website provides an overview of exactly what has been released:

Adam is a modeling engine and declarative language for describing constraints and relationships on a collection of value, typically the parameters to an application command. When bound to a human interface (HI) Adam provides the logic that controls the HI behavior. Adam is similar in concept to a spreadsheet or a forms manager. Values are set and dependent values are recalculated. Adam provides facilities to resolve interrelated dependencies and to track those dependencies, beyond what a spreadsheet provides.

Eve consists of a declarative language and layout engine for constructing an HI. The layout engine in Eve takes into account a rich description of UI elements to achieve a high quality layout - rivaling what can be achieved with manual placement. A single HI description in Eve suffices for multiple OS platforms and languages. This document describes Eve2, the latest version of Eve. Eve2 was developed to work with Adam and to incorporate many improvements that have been requested since Eve1 was written.

It is important to note that Adam and Eve do not constitute a traditional application framework. They are component libraries which can be incorporated into a number of environments. They can be used together, or independently, but must be combined with other facilities to construct an application. Nearly all of the components which comprise Adam and Eve can also be used independently and are documented as part of ASL.

Sadly, my experience with Adobe's products extends only to their Acrobat Reader software, so I can't claim from personal experience that they have achieved their aim of writing stable software.

However, the fact that top-level architects at Adobe are cognizant of declarative paradigms and generic programming gives me new hope in the industry.

Embedded Interpreters

This is a tutorial on using type-indexed embedding projection pairs when writing interpreters in statically-typed functional languages. The method allows (higher-order) values in the interpreting language to be embedded in the interpreted language and values from the interpreted language may be projected back into the interpreting one. This is particularly useful when adding command-line interfaces or scripting languages to applications written in functional languages. We first describe the basic idea and show how it may be extended to languages with recursive types and applied to elementary meta-programming. We then show how the method combines with Filinski's continuation-based monadic reflection operations to define an extensional version of the call-by-value monadic translation and hence to allow values to be mapped bidirectionally between the levels of an interpreter for a functional language parameterized by an arbitrary monad. Finally, we show how SML functions may be embedded into, and projected from, an interpreter for an asynchronous pi-calculus via an extensional variant of a standard translation from lambda into pi.

Another paper from Nick Benton.

Like the previous one this paper is dense and detailed, but this time there are some useful practical techniques that may come handy next time you build a DSL in a functional language.

Code Generation with Python, Cog, and Nant

We've been using C# for a couple of years now, and are getting tired of the verbosity. Especially tired of copy/pasting and changing a couple of identifiers, and I imagine many other people are, too. After seeing some of the macro capabilities of Lisp, we got jealous. After some googling and browsing, I ran across Ned Batchelder's python-based code generation tool, Cog.

A nice description of using coge generation in real life. Might help explain the idea to programmers unfamiliar with the technique.

Normal-order direct-style beta-evaluator with syntax-rules, and the repeated applications of call/cc

Oleg's presentation at the workshop in honor of Daniel Friedman is great fun as usual. The topic of repeated applications of call/cc has been mentioned on LtU previously, a few years ago. New this time: the full and correct beta-normalizer written as a direct-style syntax-rule. The normalizer implements calculus of explicit substitutions. The talk presents probably the shortest (and the fastest) normal-order beta-normalizer as a (stand-alone) Scheme macro. Another new feature is the discussion of self-applications of delimited continuation operators. The talk mentions incidentally that shift, control, shift0 and other, less-delimited control operators are the members of the same family: gshift/greset.

Hot stuff.

Ian Bicking: The challenge of metaprogramming

So I think it's really important that we approach metaprogramming with caution. I think Guido has been right to resist macros. Not because they are necessarily wrong, but because we haven't yet figured out how to do them right. And maybe we never will, maybe source code simply isn't the right level for abstractions. I think it's good that Python doesn't do tail-call elimination; it seems like a nice feature, but in subtle ways it makes the language harder. And I think continuations could lead to bad things. There are wrong paths on the road to higher-level programming. (Though in some ways I also feel the opposite: tell us not to shoot ourselves in the foot, and expect us to listen, don't assume we'll abuse every feature that exists; there's always a tension in these design choices.)

This deserves more attention than I can give it right now, but I am sure others here will want to comment.

Python, metaprogramming, and macros

A nice blogpost from Ian Bicking.

XML feed