T: A Dialect of Lisp

T: A Dialect of Lisp, or, LAMBDA: The Ultimate Software Tool

The T project is an experiment in language design and implementation.
Its purpose is to test the thesis developed by Steele and Sussman in
their series of papers about the Scheme language: that Scheme may be
used as the basis for a practical programming language of exceptional
expressive power; and, that implementations of scheme could perform
better than other Lisp systems, and competitively with implementations of programming languages, such as C and Bliss, which are usually
considered to be inherently more efficient than Lisp on conventional
machine architectures. We are developing a portable implementation of
T, currently targetted fo rthe VAX under the Unix and VMS operating
systems and for the Apollo, a MC68000-based workstations.

Good Ideas, Through the Looking Glass

Niklaus Wirth. Good Ideas, Through the Looking Glass, IEEE Computer, Jan. 2006, pp. 56-68.

An entire potpourri of ideas is listed from the past decades of Computer Science and Computer Technology. Widely acclaimed at their time, many have lost in splendor and brilliance under today’s critical scrutiny. We try to find reasons. Some of the ideas are almost forgotten. But we believe that they are worth recalling, not the least because one must try to learn from the past, be it for the sake of progress, intellectual stimulation, or fun.

A personal look at some ideas, mostly from the field of programming languages. Some of Wirth's objections are amusing, some infuriating - and some I agree with...

LtU readers will obviously go directly to sections 4 (Programming Language Features) and 6 (Programming Paradigms). Here are a few choice quotes:

It has become fashionable to regard notation as a secondary issue depending purely on personal taste. This may partly be true; yet the choice of notation should not be considered an arbitrary matter. It has consequences, and it reveals the character of a language. [Wirth goes on to discuss = vs. == in C...]

Enough has been said and written about this non-feature [goto] to convince almost everyone that it is a primary example of a bad idea. The designer of Pascal retained the goto statement (as well as the if statement without closing end symbol). Apparently he lacked the courage to break with convention and made wrong concessions to traditionalists. But that was in 1968. By now, almost everybody has understood the problem, but apparently not the designers of the latest commercial programming languages, such as C#.

The concept that languages serve to communicate between humans had been completely blended out, as apparently everyone could now define his own language on the fly. The high hopes, however, were soon damped by the difficulties encountered when trying to specify, what these private constructions should mean. As a consequence, the intreaguing idea of extensible languages faded away rather quickly.

LtU readers are also going to "enjoy" what Wirth has to say about functional programming...

(Thanks Tristram)

Scott Rosenberg: Code Reads

This is the inaugural edition of Code Reads, a weekly discussion of some of the central essays, documents and texts in the history of software. This week we're talking about Frederick Brooks's The Mythical Man-Month. (OK, let's be honest: I'm talking about it. I'm hoping you, or you, or you, may want to, as well!

This is an ongoing series with Dijkstra's "Go To Statement Considered Harmful" coming up. This essay was mentioned here a few times, of course, so you might want to check the archives.

This item is not directly language related, but since you can win prizes, I thought I'd better let you guys know..

Marc Andreessen: A Web Odyssey

Andreeesen discusses the problems with programming languages prior to 1995 and how things changed with the development of Java, followed by JavaScript and PHP. These languages were easier to learn and allowed for easier cross platform use and quick deployment. In addition, with the meteoric drop in hardware and network costs, more powerful applications will be much easier to develop and worldwide collaboration is possible.

A personal view on programming language history, biased in favor of dynamic languages and specifically PHP (audio show).

Feel free to comment on the historical accuracy and/or Andreeesen's central argument.

Lisp Machine Manual

This is a prerelease version of the hypertext edition of the 6th edition of the Lisp Machine Manual. To read this manual, you need to use a browser that is capable of performing XSL transformations (Firefox, Internet Explorer and others).

A 1984 document by Richard Stallman, Daniel Weinreb and David Moon.

The preface contains a "personal note" from Stallman announcing GNU.

Some sections of interest are: cdr coding, closure manipulation functions, stack groups, and areas.

HOPL III and the History of Haskell

Interesting draft paper on the History of Haskell by Simon Peyton Jones, Phil Wadler, Paul Hudak, and John Hughes.

This paper describes the history of Haskell, including its genesis and principles, technical contributions, implementations and tools, and applications and impact.

This paper is aimed at History of Programming Languages - HOPL III to be held in June 2007.

In 1978, the first History of Programming Language Conference (HOPL) described the development of 13 computer programming languages, the people who participated in that work, and the context in which it was undertaken. In 1993, HOPL-II contained 14 papers on the genesis and evolution of programming languages. It is time for HOPL-III, to be held with FCRC 2007 in San Diego. Each HOPL-III paper should detail the early history or evolution of a specific programming language. Preliminary ideas about each language should have been documented by 1996 and each language should have been in use by 1998.

Which leaves the question of which PLs should take part in HOPL-III?
(I guess I need to go back and remember which were documentend in I & II).

computerhistory's History of LISP

History of LISP (software collection committee) edited by Paul McJones. Abstract:

The goal of this project is to locate source code, design documents, and other materials concerning the original LISP I/1.5 system, and as many of its follow-ons as possible. LISP was one of the earliest high-level programming languages and introduced many ideas such as garbage collection, recursive functions, symbolic expressions, and dynamic type-checking. This is a pilot project of the Computer History Museum's Software Collection Committee to develop expertise in the collection, preservation, and presentation of historic software. Comments, suggestions, and donations of additional materials are greatly appreciated.

I ran across this page by accident while googling for "lisp assembler lap" because I'd recently learned LAP was the standard acronym for lisp assembly program (ie a lisp based assember), which also described what I was currently trying to do. It's funny how often a new idea is just the Nth repetition of many old ideas. :-)

Anyway, this page links a wealth of interesting material on early Lisp implementations. (Unfortunately a number of the PDF documents don't open on my current machine, so I can't read several of the items I find most interesting, including everything L. Peter Deutsch authored.)

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz

Though his contributions to computer science predate our current notion of a computer by nearly three hundred years, some claim Leibniz to have been the first computer scientist and information theorist. A history department on Ltu should in my opinion pay homage to such a character of fame, hence a link to a beautiful site dedicated to Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz

Charles Babbage Institute

The Charles Babbage Institute is an historical archives and research center of the University of Minnesota. CBI is dedicated to promoting study of the history of information technology and information processing and their impact on society. CBI preserves relevant historical documentation in all media, conducts and fosters research in history and archival methods, offers graduate fellowships, and sponsors symposia, conferences, and publications.


CBI historians design and administer research projects in the history of information technology and engage in original research that is disseminated through scholarly publications, conference presentations, and the CBI web site. CBI archivists collect, preserve, and make available for research primary source materials relating to the history of information technology. The archival collection consists of corporate records, manuscript materials, records of professional associations, oral history interviews, trade publications, periodicals, obsolete manuals and product literature, photographs, films, videos, and reference materials. CBI also serves as a clearinghouse for resources on the history of information technology.

(Copied from the "about section" of the CBI site, hope that is allowed)

Didn't find any reference to this site on Ltu. Guess it might be of interest to the history department.

Software ideals and history

A slide presentation on Software ideals and history given in a lecture by Stroustrup and fellow Aggies, turned up in google references to my PL People page. Whatever one thinks of C++ as a language, Stroustrup views on the history of PLs is always an interesting read (I recommend his book the Design and Evolution of C++ for the serious PL enthusiast).

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