An Axiomatic Basis for Computer Programming by Tony Hoare, 1969.

In this paper an attempt is made to explore the logical foundations of computer programming by use of techniques which were first applied in the study of geometry and have later been extended to other branches of mathematics. This involves the elucidation of sets of axioms and rules of inference which can be used in proofs of the properties of computer programs. Examples are given of such axioms and rules, and a formal proof of a simple theorem is displayed. Finally, it is argued that important advantage, both theoretical and practical, may follow from a pursuance of these topics.

Considered by many to be among the best of the great works in programming languages.

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