Semantics
Nothing you don't already know, if you are inteo this sort of thing (and many if not most LtUers are), but a quick way to get the basic idea if you are not. Wadler has papers that explain CurryHoward better, and the category theory content here is very basic  but it's an easy listen that will give you the fundamental points if you still wonder what this category thing is all about.
To make this a bit more fun for those already in the know: what is totally missing from the talk (understandable given time constraints) is why this should interest the "working hacker". So how about pointing out a few cool uses/ideas that discerning hackers will appreciate? Go for it!
Fully Abstract Compilation via Universal Embedding by Max S. New, William J. Bowman, and Amal Ahmed:
A fully abstract compiler guarantees that two source components are observationally equivalent in the source language if and only if their translations are observationally equivalent in the target. Full abstraction implies the translation is secure: targetlanguage attackers can make no more observations of a compiled component than a sourcelanguage attacker interacting with the original source component. Proving full abstraction for realistic compilers is challenging because realistic target languages contain features (such as control effects) unavailable in the source, while proofs of full abstraction require showing that every target context to which a compiled component may be linked can be backtranslated to a behaviorally equivalent source context.
We prove the first full abstraction result for a translation whose target language contains exceptions, but the source does not. Our translation—specifically, closure conversion of simply typed λcalculus with recursive types—uses types at the target level to ensure that a compiled component is never linked with attackers that have more distinguishing power than sourcelevel attackers. We present a new backtranslation technique based on a deep embedding of the target language into the source language at a dynamic type. Then boundaries are inserted that mediate terms between the untyped embedding and the stronglytyped source. This technique allows backtranslating nonterminating programs, target features that are untypeable in the source, and wellbracketed effects.
Potentially a promising step forward to secure multilanguage runtimes. We've previously discussed security vulnerabilities caused by full abstraction failures here and here. The paper also provides a comprehensive review of associated literature, like various means of protection, back translations, embeddings, etc.
Simon Peyton Jones has been elected as a Fellow of the Royal Society. The Royal Society biography reads:
Simon's main research interest is in functional programming languages, their implementation, and their application. He was a key contributor to the design of the nowstandard functional language Haskell, and is the lead designer of the widelyused Glasgow Haskell Compiler (GHC). He has written two textbooks about the implementation of functional languages.
More generally, Simon is interested in language design, rich type systems, compiler technology, code generation, runtime systems, virtual machines, and garbage collection. He is particularly motivated by direct use of principled theory to practical language design and implementation  that is one reason he loves functional programming so much.
Simon is also chair of Computing at School, the grassroots organisation that was at the epicentre of the 2014 reform of the English computing curriculum.
Congratulations SPJ!
I saw this work presented at ESOP 2015 by Neil Toronto, and the talk was excellent (slides).
Running Probabilistic Programs Backwards
Neil Toronto, Jay McCarthy, David Van Horn
2015
Many probabilistic programming languages allow programs to be run under constraints in order to carry out Bayesian inference. Running programs under constraints could enable other uses such as rare event simulation and probabilistic verificationexcept that all such probabilistic languages are necessarily limited because they are defined or implemented in terms of an impoverished theory of probability. Measuretheoretic probability provides a more general foundation, but its generality makes finding computational content difficult.
We develop a measuretheoretic semantics for a firstorder probabilistic language with recursion, which interprets programs as functions that compute preimages. Preimage functions are generally uncomputable, so we derive an abstract semantics. We implement the abstract semantics and use the implementation to carry out Bayesian inference, stochastic ray tracing (a rare event simulation), and probabilistic verification of floatingpoint error bounds.
(also on SciRate)
The introduction sells the practical side of the work a bit better than the abstract.
Stochastic ray tracing [30] is one such rareevent simulation task. As illus
trated in Fig. 1, to carry out stochastic ray tracing, a probabilistic program
simulates a light source emitting a single photon in a random direction, which
is reflected or absorbed when it hits a wall. The program outputs the photon’s
path, which is constrained to pass through an aperture. Millions of paths that
meet the constraint are sampled, then projected onto a simulated sensor array.
The program’s main loop is a recursive function with two arguments: path ,
the photon’s path so far as a list of points, and dir , the photon’s current direction.
simulatephoton path dir :=
case (findhit (fst path) dir) of
absorb pt −→ (pt, path)
reflect pt norm −→ simulatephoton (pt, path) (randomhalfdir norm)
Running simulatephoton (pt, ()) dir , where pt is the light source’s location and
dir is a random emission direction, generates a photon path. The fst of the path
(the last collision point) is constrained to be in the aperture. The remainder of
the program is simple vector math that computes rayplane intersections.
In contrast, handcoded stochastic ray tracers, written in generalpurpose
languages, are much more complex and divorced from the physical processes they
simulate, because they must interleave the advanced Monte Carlo algorithms
that ensure the aperture constraint is met.
Unfortunately, while many probabilistic programming languages support random real numbers, none are capable of running a probabilistic program like simulatephoton under constraints to carry out stochastic ray tracing. The reason is not lack of
engineering or weak algorithms, but is theoretical at its core: they are all either
defined or implemented using [density functions]. [...] Programs whose outputs are deterministic
functions of random values and programs with recursion generally cannot denote
density functions. The program simulatephoton exhibits both characteristics.
Measuretheoretic probability is a more powerful alternative to this naive
probability theory based on probability mass and density functions. It not only
subsumes naive probability theory, but is capable of defining any computable
probability distribution, and many uncomputable distributions. But while even
the earliest work [15] on probabilistic languages is measuretheoretic, the theory’s
generality has historically made finding useful computational content difficult.
We show that measuretheoretic probability can be made computational by
 Using measuretheoretic probability to define a compositional, denotational
semantics that gives a valid denotation to every program.
 Deriving an abstract semantics, which allows computing answers to questions
about probabilistic programs to arbitrary accuracy.
 Implementing the abstract semantics and efficiently solving problems.
In fact, our primary implementation, Dr. Bayes, produced Fig. 1b by running a probabilistic program like simulatephoton under an aperture constraint.
Eugenia Cheng's new popular coscience book is out, in the U.K. under the title Cakes, Custard and Category Theory: Easy recipes for understanding complex maths, and in the U.S. under the title How to Bake Pi: An Edible Exploration of the Mathematics of Mathematics:
Most people imagine maths is something like a slow cooker: very useful, but pretty limited in what it can do. Maths, though, isn't just a tool for solving a specific problem  and it's definitely not something to be afraid of. Whether you're a maths glutton or have forgotten how long division works (or never really knew in the first place), the chances are you've missed what really makes maths exciting. Calling on a baker's dozen of entertaining, puzzling examples and mathematically illuminating culinary analogies  including chocolate brownies, iterated Battenberg cakes, sandwich sandwiches, Yorkshire puddings and Möbius bagels  brilliant young academic and mathematical crusader Eugenia Cheng is here to tell us why we should all love maths.
From simple numeracy to category theory ('the mathematics of mathematics'), Cheng takes us through the joys of the mathematical world. Packed with recipes, puzzles to surprise and delight even the innumerate, Cake, Custard & Category Theory will whet the appetite of maths whizzes and arithmophobes alike. (Not to mention aspiring cooks: did you know you can use that slow cooker to make clotted cream?) This is maths at its absolute tastiest.
Cheng, one of the Catsters, gives a guided tour of mathematical thinking and research activities, and through the core philosophy underlying category theory. This is the kind of book you can give to your grandma and grandpa so they can boast to their friends what her grandchildren are doing (and bake you a nice dessert when you come and visit :) ). A pleasant weekend reading.
In this year's POPL, Bob Atkey made a splash by showing how to get from parametricity to conservation laws, via Noether's theorem:
Invariance is of paramount importance in programming languages and in physics. In programming languages, John Reynolds’ theory of relational parametricity demonstrates that parametric polymorphic programs are invariant under change of data representation, a property that yields “free” theorems about programs just from their types. In physics, Emmy Noether showed that if the action of a physical system is invariant under change of coordinates, then the physical system has a conserved quantity: a quantity that remains constant for all time. Knowledge of conserved quantities can reveal deep properties of physical systems. For example, the conservation of energy, which by Noether’s theorem is a consequence of a system’s invariance under timeshifting.
In this paper, we link Reynolds’ relational parametricity with Noether’s theorem for deriving conserved quantities. We propose an extension of System Fω with new kinds, types and term constants for writing programs that describe classical mechanical systems in terms of their Lagrangians. We show, by constructing a relationally parametric model of our extension of Fω, that relational parametricity is enough to satisfy the hypotheses of Noether’s theorem, and so to derive conserved quantities for free, directly from the polymorphic types of Lagrangians expressed in our system.
In case this one went under the radar, at POPL'12, Martín Escardó gave a tutorial on seemingly impossible functional programs:
Programming language semantics is typically applied to
prove compiler correctness and allow (manual or automatic) program
verification. Certain kinds of semantics can also be applied to
discover programs that one wouldn't have otherwise thought of. This is
the case, in particular, for semantics that incorporate topological
ingredients (limits, continuity, openness, compactness). For example,
it turns out that some function types (X > Y) with X infinite (but
compact) do have decidable equality, contradicting perhaps popular
belief, but certainly not (highertype) computability theory. More
generally, one can often check infinitely many cases in finite time.
I will show you such programs, run them fast in surprising instances,
and introduce the theory behind their derivation and working. In
particular, I will study a single (very high type) program that (i)
optimally plays sequential games of unbounded length, (ii) implements
the Tychonoff Theorem from topology (and builds finitetime search
functions for infinite sets), (iii) realizes the doublenegation shift
from proof theory (and allows us to extract programs from classical
proofs that use the axiom of countable choice). There will be several
examples in the languages Haskell and Agda.
A shorter version (coded in Haskell) appears in Andrej Bauer's blog.
In his blog, Bob Harper, in joint effort with Dave MacQueen and Lars Bergstrom, announces the launch of smlfamily.org:
The Standard ML Family project provides a home for online versions of various formal definitions of Standard ML, including the "Definition of Standard ML, Revised" (Standard ML 97). The site also supports coordination between different implementations of the Standard ML (SML) programming language by maintaining common resources such as the documentation for the Standard ML Basis Library and standard test suites. The goal is to increase compatibility and resource sharing between Standard ML implementations.
The site includes a history section devoted to the history of ML, and of Standard ML in particular. This section will contain a collection of original source documents relating to the design of the language.
Logical methods in computer science just published Matija Pretnar's latest take on algebraic effects and handlers:
We present a complete polymorphic effect inference algorithm for an MLstyle language with handlers of not only exceptions, but of any other algebraic effect such as input & output, mutable references and many others. Our main aim is to offer the programmer a useful insight into the effectful behaviour of programs. Handlers help here by cutting down possible effects and the resulting lengthy output that often plagues precise effect systems. Additionally, we present a set of methods that further simplify the displayed types, some even by deliberately hiding inferred information from the programmer.
Pretnar and Bauer's Eff has made previous appearances here on LtU. Apart from the new fangled polymorphic effect system, this paper also contains an Eff tutorial.
Earlier this week Microsoft Research Cambridge organised a Festschrift for Luca Cardelli. The preface from the book:
Luca Cardelli has made exceptional contributions to the world of programming
languages and beyond. Throughout his career, he has reinvented himself every
decade or so, while continuing to make true innovations. His achievements span
many areas: software; language design, including experimental languages;
programming language foundations; and the interaction of programming languages
and biology. These achievements form the basis of his lasting scientific leadership
and his wide impact.
...
Luca is always asking "what is new", and is always looking to
the future. Therefore, we have asked authors to produce short pieces that would
indicate where they are today and where they are going. Some of the resulting
pieces are short scientific papers, or abridged versions of longer papers; others are
less technical, with thoughts on the past and ideas for the future. We hope that
they will all interest Luca.
Hopefully the videos will be posted soon.

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